Leadership Behaviors: Task and Relationship Focus
In the middle of the 20th Century, researchers turned their attention from how leaders are, to what to what they do. With a suitable behavioral theory of leadership, we can more easily train leaders. They found the key concepts are task and relationship.
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Introduction to Leadership
Program 3: Managing and Leading Individuals
Course 11: Leadership
Section 2: Models of Leadership
Other videos in our Introduction to Leadership:
🎬 Traits based Models of Leadership
🎬 Action Centered Leadership – A Roles-based or Functional Leadership Model
🎬 Goleman’s 6 Leadership Styles – A Styles Models of Leadership
🎬 What is Transactional Leadership?
Two major studies of leadership behavior suggested that it falls in two dimensions were conducted by:
• the Bureau of Business Research at Ohio State University
• the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research
The Two Dimensions of Leadership Behavior
Ohio State University authors called this behavior ‘Initiating Structure’. University of Michigan researchers referred to Production-oriented leaders. It corresponds most closely to Douglas McGregor’s Theory X.
Called Consideration at Ohio State University, and Employee-oriented Leader by the Universe of Michigan. This corresponds most closely to Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y.
These two dimensions give rise to a 2 x 2 grid.
Neither set of behaviors is ‘superior’ to other. What matters is the particular situation – so, we’ll look at models of ‘situational leadership’ later in the course.
Thinking about your own leadership behaviors…
1. what activities fall under Task Focus? (2 MC CPD Points)
2. what activities fall under Relationship Focus? (2 MC CPD Points)
3. How does this model help you understand your role as a leader? (2 MC CPD Points)
There are a vast number of Leadership books – perhaps more than on any other management-related topic. And there is also a huge range represented in different lists of the best. This no-doubt reflects the different contexts for leadership.
So, any recommended reading list of leadership books must be particularly subjective. I have chosen those that made me think, and which are of particular value to managerial leaders: not sportspeople, military leaders, or CEOs. In no particular order:
📖 Leaders Eat Last
📖 Start with Why
📖 Humble Leadership
📖 The Leadership Challenge
📖 The New Leaders
📖 Shackleton’s Way
📖 Why should Anyone be Led by You
📖 The Habit of Excellence
⭕️ Links to our book recommendations are affiliated through Amazon and help support our free videos
Managers Need a Basic set of kit to do your job well. Here are my top recommendations: https://kit.co/MikeClayton/manager-s-work-kit (the links are affiliated)
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00:00 – Task and Relationship Focus: A Behavioral Model of Leadership
00:29 – Two OG studies of leadership
00:50 – The Two Dimensions of Leadership Behavior
01:02 – Task Focus
01:59 – Relationship Focus
02:44 – The Classic Grid
03:33 – Leadership efficacy
04:21 – Cultural impact on leadership behaviors
05:00 – Summing up
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