Lesson notes, exercises, downloads, and recommended reading are below the video. On mobile, the video will rescale when you play it.

Leadership Behaviors: Task and Relationship Focus

In the middle of the 20th Century, researchers turned their attention from how leaders are, to what to what they do. With a suitable behavioral theory of leadership, we can more easily train leaders. They found the key concepts are task and relationship.

Watching this video is worth 2 Management Courses CPD Points*.
🔎 See below for details

Introduction to Leadership
Program 3: Managing and Leading Individuals
Course 11: Leadership
Section 2: Models of Leadership

Other videos in our Introduction to Leadership:
🎬 Traits based Models of Leadership
🎬 Action Centered Leadership – A Roles-based or Functional Leadership Model
🎬 Goleman’s 6 Leadership Styles – A Styles Models of Leadership
🎬 What is Transactional Leadership?

Two major studies of leadership behavior suggested that it falls in two dimensions were conducted by:
• the Bureau of Business Research at Ohio State University
• the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research

The Two Dimensions of Leadership Behavior
Task Focus
Ohio State University authors called this behavior ‘Initiating Structure’. University of Michigan researchers referred to Production-oriented leaders. It corresponds most closely to Douglas McGregor’s Theory X.

Relationship focus
Called Consideration at Ohio State University, and Employee-oriented Leader by the Universe of Michigan. This corresponds most closely to Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y.

These two dimensions give rise to a 2 x 2 grid.

Neither set of behaviors is ‘superior’ to other. What matters is the particular situation – so, we’ll look at models of ‘situational leadership’ later in the course.

Thinking about your own leadership behaviors…
1. what activities fall under Task Focus? (2 MC CPD Points)
2. what activities fall under Relationship Focus? (2 MC CPD Points)
3. How does this model help you understand your role as a leader? (2 MC CPD Points)

Free Resources
🧰 CPD Tools – https://gum.co/MC-CPD
Paid resources
🧳 Management Courses Onboarding Kit – https://gum.co/MC-ObK ($3)

There are a vast number of Leadership books – perhaps more than on any other management-related topic. And there is also a huge range represented in different lists of the best. This no-doubt reflects the different contexts for leadership.

So, any recommended reading list of leadership books must be particularly subjective. I have chosen those that made me think, and which are of particular value to managerial leaders: not sportspeople, military leaders, or CEOs. In no particular order:

📖 Leaders Eat Last
📖 Start with Why
📖 Humble Leadership
📖 The Leadership Challenge
📖 The New Leaders
📖 Shackleton’s Way
📖 Why should Anyone be Led by You
📖 The Habit of Excellence

⭕️ Links to our book recommendations are affiliated through Amazon and help support our free videos

Managers Need a Basic set of kit to do your job well. Here are my top recommendations: https://kit.co/MikeClayton/manager-s-work-kit (the links are affiliated)

You can record your Management Courses CPD points on our free, downloadable CPD record log.
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Each video has two levels of MC CPD points. For this video:
– If you simply watched the video, record 2 MC CPD points
– If you also carried out all of the recommended exercises, score a total of 8 MC CPD points

00:00 – Task and Relationship Focus: A Behavioral Model of Leadership
00:29 – Two OG studies of leadership
00:50 – The Two Dimensions of Leadership Behavior
01:02 – Task Focus
01:59 – Relationship Focus
02:44 – The Classic Grid
03:33 – Leadership efficacy
04:21 – Cultural impact on leadership behaviors
05:00 – Summing up

#ManagementCourses #Leadership #LeadershipBehaviors


Simon Sinek: Start with Why and Leaders Eat Last
Kouzes and Posner: The Leadership Challenge
Warren Bennis: Master of Transformative Leadership
Coaching for Leadership Development
Mentoring for Leadership Development
The Principles of Leadership Development
Complexity, Leadership, and the Cynefin Framework
Robert House and Path Goal Theory [Situational Leadership]
Commercial Situational Leadership Models
A Generic Day-to-Day Situational Leadership Model
Tannenbaum & Schmidt: The Leadership Continuum
The Fiedler Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
What is Servant Leadership?
What is Authentic Leadership?
What is Charismatic Leadership?
What is Visionary Leadership?
The Blake & Mouton Leadership Grid
What is Transformational Leadership?
What is Transactional Leadership?
Goleman’s 6 Leadership Styles – A Styles Models of Leadership
Action Centered Leadership – A Roles-based or Functional Leadership Model
Traits Models of Leadership
Leadership Traits, Roles, and Styles: Three Types of Leadership Model
What is Leader-Member Exchange Theory? And Should You Use LMX Theory?
10-Step Leadership Process: A Simple Model for How to Lead
Leadership Attitudes: How to Approach Things Like a Leader
The Leadership Skill Set: What Every Leader Needs to be Able to Do
What is Leadership? and Why do We Need Leaders?

Mike Clayton

About Mike Clayton 

Dr Mike Clayton is a (former) Project Manager and now a management educator. Having trained thousands of people at live workshops, seminars, and conferences, he now delivers training mainly via video. He has 14 books with international publishers and runs two successful YouTube channels. He is also the founder of OnlinePMCourses.com

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