Porter & Lawler: Expectancy Theory on Steroids
Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of motivation is extremely successful. But Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler found that predict or explain everything about the relationships among the effort we put in, the performance we achieve, and the satisfaction we feel. Porter & Lawler’s Expectancy Model is far more complex, but if you are prepared to spend some time with it, it offers some valuable insights.
Our Vroom video:
Victor Vroom and Expectancy Theory: Process of Model of Motivation
Watching this video is worth 2 Management Courses CPD Points*.
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This video is part of course module number 3.7.2
Program 3: Managing and Leading Individuals
Course 7: Motivation
Section 2: Process Models of Motivation
Check out our full Motivation playlist at https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL6vWkk9L7LeE7ly5r-rFBoi0gt1o3yKhH
Videos you may also like:
🎬 The Fundamentals of Motivation – Motives, Drives, and being Blocked https://youtu.be/IVjnAZ-8-dY
🎬 John Stacy Adams and Equity Theory: Process of Model of Motivation https://youtu.be/ksnCw96vg7M
🎬 Rensis Likert and High Producing Managers – Process Models of Motivation https://youtu.be/MTgkCe_hhWs
🎬 Edwin Locke: Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation https://youtu.be/737RGCTC1aE
Porter & Lawler did not find a direct cause and effect relationship between motivational effort and job performance. They saw a complex relationship between effort, abilities and traits, role perceptions, and performance.
The second key insight was that our sense of job satisfaction is more dependent upon our performance than vice versa.
This led them to craft the complex set of interactions and feedback loops in the diagram.
What Porter and Lawler show as Perceived effort Reward Probability is similar to Vroom’s idea of instrumentality.
Expectancy arises from our perceptions of our abilities and traits, and how they relate to the way we interpret our immediate role.
Vroom’s valence is here the perceived value of rewards – both intrinsic and extrinsic.
Our satisfaction arises from both the rewards we receive from our performance and our perception of how fair they are. This feeds into the effort we are motivated to apply.
This model is complex – arguably too complex for most managers to use effectively, day-to-day. It also overlooks factors like coercion, job insecurity.
What it does tell us is that:
1. Managers are wise to support workers with the training that will enhance their abilities and confidence
2. Effective rewards need to link directly and transparently to performance
3. So too must performance evaluations be fair and transparent
4. Motivation can be achieved through a range of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
5. Rewards will only motivated when they are perceived as fair in the context of the work to be done.
6. You must set fair and precise role expectations and performance goals
1. Spend some time studying the model (you can download the diagram at https://www.dropbox.com/s/q7k66a48ohaw21p/Porter%20%26%20Lawler%20-%20Expectancy%20Theory%20on%20Steroids.pdf
Understand how it works and then assess it critically. How well does it match your experience? (3 MC CPD Points)
2. How useful is this for you? (1 MC CPD Point)
For a solid introduction to motivation:
– HBR Guide to Motivating People https://geni.us/sO2IKgn
The best of modern thinking on motivation, in accessible business books. These are all modern classics:
– Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us https://geni.us/uq3EBO
– Start With Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone To Take Action https://geni.us/vjErAN
– Lead, Motivate, Engage: How to INSPIRE Your Team to Win at Work https://geni.us/ABkZEx
– Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smart https://geni.us/E39I
– Payoff: The Hidden Logic That Shapes Our Motivations https://geni.us/uMaP
– The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work https://geni.us/tiEkeH
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